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Joseph Banks Rhine (b. September 29, 1895 – d. February 20, 1980) was a pioneer of parapsychology. He was educated at Ohio Northern University, the College of Wooster, and at the University of Chicago, where he received his master's degree in 1923 and Ph.D. in 1925, both in botany. In 1927, he moved to Duke University to work under Professor William McDougall. There, he began the studies that helped develop parapsychology into a branch of science, today recognized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

He almost single-handedly developed the methodology and concepts for parapsychology as a rigorous experimental science, and founded many of the institutions necessary for its continuing professionalization — including the Journal of Parapsychology, the Parapsychological Association, and the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man (FRNM), a precursor to what is today known as the Rhine Research Center.